Abstract 9/2016

Table of content

Marek Buda, Tomasz Folwarski, Tomasz Krukowicz – Problems of countdown timers use for traffic lights

Radosław Bul –Poznań Metropolitan Railway as a response to spatial and demographic changes occurring in the area of Poznań and its suburban zone

Katarzyna Nosal, Alicja Pawłowska –Changes in the approach to the urban sustainable mobility

Maria Zych-Lewandowska –Special public transport lines during All Saints’ Day in Warsaw




Marek Buda, Tomasz Folwarski, Tomasz Krukowicz

Problems of countdown timers use for traffic lights

Abstract: The article discusses problem of use of countdown timers  applied during for the  change of signal at traffic lights. The devices, their operation and its advantages and problems are described. Possibility for countdown timers use under current legal status has been evaluated. The article is an enhancement of  the paper: Countdown timers for traffic lights – the pros and cons published in the journal “TTS Technika Transportu Szynowego” (Railway Transport Technics) No 10/2013. Basing on the available materials, the article describes types of timers and technical solutions that have been applied. Three groups of problems are highlighted: related to traffic engineering, related to construction of the devices and legal and traffic safety aspects. In the area of traffic engineering problems related to controlling algorithms design and impact of the devices on controlling efficiency are referred. The issues related to devices arrangement design are discussed as well. The part dealing with technical aspects presents working principles of devices available on the market and their shortcomings. The analysis of controller and device hardware has been performed so that safety standards for signaling devices are met. The problem of construction and photometric requirements for countdown timers is also mentioned. The part dealing with legal and traffic safety aspects draws attention to situations when using countdown timers may lead to dangerous behavior of drivers or road incident. The way of moving of different traffic participants is considered. Also factors that may guide road managers when installing such devices are noted. The article  defines areas that should be regulated in the case of intention to authorize countdown timers use for traffic lights.

Key words: traffic lights, countdown timer, traffic lights controller, road traffic safety


Radosław Bul

Poznań Metropolitan Railway as a response to spatial and demographic changes occurring in the area of Poznań and its suburban zone

Abstract: The aim of this article is to present a concepts of the construction of the Poznań Metropolitan Railway (PKM). The planned system should be main transport axis of the city and its suburban zone. In addition, it should also be a real alternative to private car transport. Construction of the PKM system will stimulate the development of the city and its metropolitan area. Despite some limitations resulted from the technical specificity of the Poznań Railway Junction, the metropolitan railway system should be the main mode of public transport in the metropolis area.

Key words: Poznań Metropolitan Railway, metropolitan railway, Poznań, PKM  


Katarzyna Nosal, Alicja Pawłowska

Changes in the approach to the urban sustainable mobility

Abstract: Commuters generate a large number of trips, including those realized by car, contributing with the increase of traffic congestion. The negative consequences of car use must be considered also in terms of inconveniences experienced by employees, employers and local communities of the neighboring areas. The European Commission notes the need to implement activities aimed at commuters’ behavior change. In the “Green Paper” and the “Action Plan on Urban Mobility” the important role of enterprises and public entities has been highlighted, since their mobility strategy can shape the employees’ travel behaviors. There is a need for organization of educational and marketing activities addressed to the commuters and for encouragement of business to create so-called mobility plans. The article presents the results of research on the effectiveness of mobility plans for work places and describes the activities carried out by foreign local, regional and national authorities to encourage employers or force them to implement the sustainable mobility projects. In addition, the results of the campaign “I go to work by bike”, promoting cycling among commuters in Gdynia, are presented.

Key words: mobility management, mobility plans for work places, educational and promotional activities, bike traffic


Maria Zych-Lewandowska

Special public transport lines during All Saints’ Day in Warsaw

Abstract: The purpose of this article is to present operation of Warsaw special lines during the ZNICZ action (public transport lines operating during the All Saints’ Day when most of inhabitants visit cemeteries). A brief history of such lines operating in Warsaw is presented, along with the current cemetery bus lines traffic arrangement. The description includes special lines (Cxx numeration), as well as modifications of permanent lines, which are temporarily rescheduled to service All Saints’ Day. The article summarizes changes within bus, tram and underground lines, together with precise data regarding rolling stock, routes distance, passenger-kilometers. Some other issues are also discussed, ie. additional ticket offices. The article refers also to the following issues: need for extra public transport staff, basic assumptions regarding traffic supervision workers’ duties in the above mentioned period, together with a presentation of various useful solutions, helpful in planning the transport arrangement on the All Saints’ Day. In conclusion, a selection of the 2013 results of research on the number of passengers in public transport vehicles is presented. According to  the main finding of this research  the rush hours on All Saints’ Day are around 1.00-2.00 p.m. It means that operation during this period of time calls for the largest supplies of rolling stock and labour.

Key words: public transport, passenger transport, special lines, passenger transport services on cemeteries