Abstract 11/2012


Andrzej Rudnicki Przydatność syntetycznego wskaźnika oceny jakości transportu zbiorowego w mieście średniej wielkości

The article presents the so-called “Equivalent average passenger travel time” as a proposal for a synthetic measure of quality assessment of public transport operation as applied to medium-sized   towns. The importance of quality public transport services in relation to the documents and  projects of the EU and European standards, dedicated to this quality are outlined. General requirements in relation to comprehensive methods of public transport assessment and to synthetic indicators, referring to such methods are presented. The brief overview of this approach attempts is shown. The essence of equivalent average passenger travel time is presented. It takes into account both, the physical relationships and the parameterization of subjective assessments which are important for the passenger due to different travel conditions under which travel is performed. General formula for calculating of the indicator is additive, and its individual components are represented by multiplicative forms. They express time equivalents in the terms of: access and waiting at the bus stop, ride, transfers, the tariff system, passenger complaints, threats to passenger safety and security. In addition, the correction coefficient is introduced to refer to the accessibility and friendliness of the system. The way and formulas and tables needed to calculate it is compiled. The indicator refers to the whole public transport network of the town. Some proposal of the relationship between values of the factor and their verbal mark is presented. The calculation of indicator value results for examples of four Polish towns and number of 38 impact parameters on the factor are listed. The range of potential applications for the indicator is made. Planned modifications of the indicator in relation to its primary form are commented.

Keywords: urban public transport, multi-criteria evaluation, indicators of quality, medium-sized towns.


Wiesław Dźwigoń

Preferencje pasażerów w małych miastach na przykładzie aglomeracji krakowskiej

The aim of researches on the public transport passenger’s preferences is to learn about needs of transport users and inhabitants of cities. To improve quality of transport service it is necessary to concentrate on parameters crucial for passengers.

The article presents results of researches on preferences of passengers in the area of satellite towns around the provincial (voivode) city. Rankings of the most important characteristics of public transport in the big city (punctuality, frequency, directness) and in the neighboring areas (time of travel, punctuality, charges – price of ticket) differ from each other; focus should be put on different aspects – especially when organizing integrated public transport in the agglomeration.
Suburb area differs from the city as far as transport services are concerned: there is a high competitiveness between carriers; long journeys – with necessary changes – are much more frequent. While ticket integration is not introduced, passengers are obliged to buy separate tickets. In the article different aspects related to the methodology of researches on preferences are presented. Different methods of conducting and evaluating researches result with difficulties when comparing rankings of different cities. It is necessary to pay attention to the conditions of conducting researches so that comparing cities is more reliable.

Keywords: public transport, passengers’ preferences, agglomeration, small cities and towns


Wiesław Dźwigoń

Ocena dworców autobusowych w małych miastach

The aim of the article is to outline criteria to be used for evaluation of bus stations. Formulated criteria have been divided into four groups: structural, functional, informational and related to the comfort of station’s infrastructure use. Most criteria’s is focused on the quality evaluation but there are also quantitative measures. The sample evaluation of bus stations in four small cities of the Małopolska has been presented (Kęty, Andrychów, Kalwaria, Wadowice). Development of those facilities during last twenty years and their current condition is described.
Dynamic development of minibus’ carriers and individual transport resulted with necessity of redesign which has been undertaken. Aspects concerning integration of long-distance and local public transport as well as integration of public transport with individual travelers (car and bicycle) are underestimated.  It is necessary to underline the importance of the contribution of the municipality to the development of the station and areas around the station. As far as assessment of the specific station presented criteria need to be profoundly estimated. Quality of construction and functioning of particular elements of infrastructure should submit detailed analysis. The aim of the article is a discussion about situation of stations as an element integrating long-distance and local public transport with individual transport and not only their detailed evaluation.

Keywords: public transport, bus station, small cities and towns


Radosław Mazurkiewicz

Jelenia Góra, poviatcity, inhabited by 84 thousand citizens is to improved collective public transport. At the moment only bus public transport is operating in the city (Municipal Transport Company). In spite of considerable potential of existing railroads network and long history of tram operation, rail transportation in public transport (in urban and commuter services) is not used at all. 

The history and the existing condition of urban collective transport and railway node in Jelenia Góra are characterized in the paper.
Currently worked out ideas for railway transport activation in the city and in the region are described as well. The author’s proposal of launch the railway transport for the city and neighboring communities to improve public transport is also presented in the article. In the paper the author asserts the most important infrastructure and traffic organization investments. A set of proposals on building the new railway stops and two new track ways leading to the neighborhood of important urban destinations is outlined as well. The attention has been put to the necessity to the correction of some bus routes and arrangement of timetable to assure suitable connections between train’s, bus’ and tram’s transport. It has been stated that well developed system of existing railroads with relatively moderate financial resources may contribute with launch of urban railway transport in Jelenia Góra.

Keywords: Jelenia Góra, urban transport, urban train, Regiotram Nisa.


Szymon Klemba

Możliwości integracji miejskiego transportu autobusowego miasta Pabianic z transportem szynowym na przykładzie połączenia aglomeracyjnego Łódź – Pabianice

Agglomeration connection between Pabianice and Łódź as a clear example of the public transport disintegration as well as proposals of activities to improve of functioning of this one of the most important links in the agglomeration are presented in this article. This connection is serviced by trains, commuter tram line, buses and private minibus carriers. Because of the location of railway station and tram line, rail transport is of poor exploitation. The cost of journey analysis (including time consumption) resulted with the conclusion that the most expensive is train and tram transportation.
To improve this situation and achieve an increase of share of rail transport it is necessary to undertake different activities like: launch shuttle bus lines and introduction of shared table of fares as well as investment activities (construction of short sections of tram tracks or new railway stop).
Current transport offer on the line Łódź – Pabianice is a good example of malfunctioning of public transport system as far as connections within an agglomeration. This is even more surprising if we take under consideration proximity of 150 kilometers from the capital agglomeration where the transport system is almost model solution.

Keywords: urban public transport, tram, rail, integration, transport system


Marek Bauer

Zasady kształtowania marszrut linii autobusowych w miastach średnich

Specific character of public transport network in medium size cities – up to 100 thousand inhabitants has been presented in the article. The author describes also methods to increase of collective public transport attractiveness in those cities like measures: to increase speed of transport means; to increase profitability of use of collective transport; to improve comfort of the journey and to provide the best system of connections, accepted by passengers.
General rules of designing collective transport routes aimed at increasing of number of trips by public transport have been presented.
Since this is usually not possible to follow all rules, limiting conditions that have to be taken under consideration while changing routes have also been discussed. The author has presented also measures that have to be undertaken for better functioning of the network based on bus priority and access restriction for individual transport.
Practical implementation of rules of designing bus routes has been presented on the example of Nowy Sącz. It includes large scope of changes in the current network, mainly through introduction of new connections from the city centre, increase of frequencies of the most important plyings and simplifying routes in the area of the city centre.
Proposals have referred also to introduction of systems of terminus and stops of changes from commuter routes to urban network. Proposed solutions are to favour a hierarchization of  routes system.
Possible effects of implementation of suggested changes in Nowy Sącz like f.i. real reduction of journey time and improvement of journey comfort in the whole network are presented in the article.

Keywords: passenger transport, collective public transport, route, public transport network


Mariusz Dudek

Komunikacja szynowa w miastach małych i średnich w aglomeracjach na przykładzie Niemiec 

As a result of dynamic development of motorization and progressive process of suburbanization problems with access by car to bigger cities as well as by buses which also are afflicted by congestion are growing. Those problems have been observed for many years in Germany but they had been solved thanks modernization of railway transport and adaptation of the offer to new challenges.
The author has presented examples of revitalization of railway lines from the surroundings of Stuttgart which for many years had been out of order. Also railway lines at the Uznam island (Uznamska Kolej Nadmorska), which has been considered to be closed down was discussed in the article.
Besides the solution based on the introduction of railway transport to the very centre of medium size city on the example of Zwickau where the railway station  was located far a way to the city centre has been presented in the article. The presentation includes also launch of double system tram in Chemnitz, where modern low floor trams have been used.
All above mentioned solutions are considered by expert as model solutions which have proved useful. At the end conclusions that should be useful while implementing such solutions in Polish agglomerations have been presented.

Keywords: passenger transport,rail transport, railway transport, transport in agglomeration


Andrzej Szarata

Analizy symulacyjne zmian w funkcjonowaniu systemu transportu w miastach

The development of  transportation system in the agglomerations requires significant financial resources and well-considered transportation strategy. It is related to the necessary  decisions, resulting very acutely to the effectiveness of transportation system. To minimize the risk of wrong and ineffective decisions, procedures of support tools in the form of  transportation system’ simulation models in the city (or agglomeration) are used often and often. It enables to verify different solutions and proposes phasing of planned investments without risk of improper implementations. Well developed and calibrated simulation model may be treated as a promising tool supporting political decisions in the investment process. In the paper four stage’ model, commonly used in Polish conditions as well as characteristics of each stage and their weak points have been presented. Also principles of activity based approach and requirements for its proper implementation have been described in the article.

Keywords: urban transport, four stage model, activity based models, simulation modelling

Katarzyna Pogłód

Kolej w obsłudze miast małych i średnich w obrębie zespołów metropolitalnych

Railway in the metropolitan areas is one the basic transport means and should play a significant role in the passenger transport. In this article few transport corridors of two metropolis have been compared and shares of railway carriages in those areas have been defined. Obtained data interchangeably show that railway transport will not be present in the passenger’s awareness as everyday transport mean in the metropolis and will be of minor importance if this transport’s offer is poor. An example of the railway connection: Wieliczka Rynek – Kraków Główny indicates that in spite of considerably longer journey by road than rail public transport, number of passengers of railway transport is inconsiderable  when flow of road public transport passengers remains large. Number of railway transport passengers  remain constant. This situation is caused by unsatisfactory offer of railway transport (including 34 trains per day, both directions). It seems that minimal frequency of railway transport is 50 trains per day, in both directions. Other aspect influencing an increase of share of railway transport is possibility to park a car in the P+R system near the railway station. Location of railway stations in attractive centers of small and medium towns as well as shortage of parking space will result with encouraging drivers not travelling by railway transport to use this parking space.

Keywords: passenger transport, railway transport, metropolis


Struska Paulina, Sapoń Grzegorz

Zmiany w przewozach miejskim transportem zbiorowym w Piotrkowie Trybunalskim w latach 2004-2011

Public transport in Piotrków Trybunalski belongs to two subsystems: public urban transport and private carriers. Piotrków Trybunalski is one of the few cities in Poland where private carriers have developed  transport services. Researches on passenger’s volume in public transport vehicles were carried out in 2004, 2008, 2011. Analysis of the changes occurring in urban public transport during this period have been based on results of those studies. In the average month of 2004 on the entire transport network 827 911 passengers used public transport services, in 2008 – 625 365 (decrease 24,5%), 2011 – 533 166 passengers (compared with 2004 drop in 35,6%, to 2008 drop in 14,7%). Over the years, on average  one per three passengers resigned services of public transport buses or minibus. The important fact is that since 2004 5,4% of the passengers have resigned travelling by the public transport and as many as 65,8 % passengers of  private carriers.

Keywords: passenger transport, public transport, Piotrków Trybunalski